MagPi is Muddy River’s patent pending electrocoagulation (EC)/ flocculation/ flotation process that uses electric current to dissolve a magnesium anode to form magnesium ammonium phosphate (“struvite”) and thus remove P. MagPi is a simple and relatively inexpensive solution to remove phosphorus (P)  from water, wastewater, and screened animal manures.  MagPi concentrates removed P  for use as fertilizer, also reducing microbial levels and odour.


Magnesium precipitation of phosphorus forms crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate (“struvite”) that serve as a slow release fertilizer.  (In contrast, chemical precipitation of phosphorus via iron or aluminum salts binds P too tightly to act as a fertilizer.)  Compared to addition of magnesium chloride plus caustic, electrocoagulation using magnesium sacrificial anodes simultaneously delivers hyper-reactive magnesium, converts nitrate to ammonia, and increases pH to favour struvite crystallization.  Flotation of struvite by hydrogen and oxygen gas bubbles of EC provides at least ten times faster separation than gravity settling and enables correspondingly smaller and much more economical solids recovery.  Multi-stage EC treatment can remove dissolved phosphorus down to extremely low ppb concentrations.